Papers relating to hearing voices

These are papers by other authors. Click here for publications by the Avatar Therapy team.


  • David A. S. (1999). Auditory hallucinations: phenomenology, neuropsychology and neuroimaging update. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. Supplementum, 395, 95–104. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.1999.tb05988.x.


  • David Anthony (2004) The cognitive neuropsychiatry of auditory verbal hallucinations: An overview , Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 9:1-2, 107-123, DOI:10.1080/13546800344000183.


  • Sommer, I., Slotema, C., Daskalakis, Z., Derks, E., Blom, J., van der Gaag, M., (2012) The Treatment of Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders, Schizophrenia Bulletin vol. 38 (4) pp.704–714. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbs034.


  • Xenitidis K, Campbell C, Rodger JA. (2013) Avatar-assisted relational therapy for persecutory voices. Br J Psychiatry. 2013 Sep;203(3):233-4. doi: 10.1192/bjp.203.3.233a. [PMID:23999484]





  • Fernández-Caballero A, Navarro E, Fernández-Sotos P, González P, Ricarte JJ, Latorre JM, Rodriguez-Jimenez R. (2017) Human-Avatar Symbiosis for the Treatment of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia through Virtual/Augmented Reality and Brain-Computer Interfaces. Front Neuroinform. 2017 Nov 21;11:64. doi: 10.3389/fninf.2017.00064. [PMID:29209193]


  • du Sert, O., Potvin, S., Lipp, O., Dellazizzo, L., Laurelli, M., Breton, R., Lalonde, P., Phraxayavong, K., O'Connor, K., Pelletier, J., Boukhalfi, T., Renaud, P., Dumais, A., (2018) Virtual reality therapy for refractory auditory verbal hallucinations inschizophrenia: A pilot clinical trial. Schizophrenia Research 197 (2018) 176. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2018.02.031.
  • Kim BH, Shin YB, Kyeong S, Lee SK, Kim JJ. (2018) Disrupted salience processing involved in motivational deficits for real-life activities in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2018 Jul;197:407-413. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2018.01.019. Epub 2018 Feb 3. [PMID:29395610]
  • Rosen C, McCarthy-Jones S, Jones N, Chase KA, Sharma RP. (2018) Negative voice-content as a full mediator of a relation between childhood adversity and distress ensuing from hearing voices. Schizophr Res. 2018 Sep;199:361-366. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2018.03.030. Epub 2018 Mar 23. [PMID:29580740]
  • Dellazizzo L, Potvin S, Phraxayavong K, Lalonde P, Dumais A. (2018) Avatar Therapy for Persistent Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in an Ultra-Resistant Schizophrenia Patient: A Case Report. Front Psychiatry. 2018 Apr 16;9:131. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00131. eCollection 2018. [PMID:29713292]
  • Dellazizzo L, Percie du Sert O, Phraxayavong K, Potvin S, O'Connor K, Dumais A. (2018) Exploration of the dialogue components in Avatar Therapy for schizophrenia patients with refractory auditory hallucinations: A content analysis. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2018 Nov;25(6):878-885. doi: 10.1002/cpp.2322. Epub 2018 Sep 16. [PMID:30221431]
  • Deamer F, Hayward M. (2018) Relating to the Speaker behind the Voice: What Is Changing? Front Psychol. 2018 Jan 25;9:11. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00011. eCollection 2018. [PMID:29422879]


  • Stefaniak I, Sorokosz K, Janicki A, Wciórka J. (2019) Therapy based on avatar-therapist synergy for patients with chronic auditory hallucinations: A pilot study. Schizophr Res. 2019 Sep;211:115-117. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2019.05.036. Epub 2019 Jul 13. [PMID:31311669]
  • Thomas N, Bless JJ, Alderson-Day B, Bell IH, Cella M, Craig T, Delespaul P, Hugdahl K, Laloyaux J, Larøi F, Lincoln TM, Schlier B, Urwyler P, van den Berg D, Jardri R. (2019) Potential Applications of Digital Technology in Assessment, Treatment, and Self-help for Hallucinations. Schizophr Bull. 2019 Feb 1;45(45 Suppl 1):S32-S42. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sby103. [PMID:30715539]


  • Aali G, Kariotis T, Shokraneh F. (2020 Avatar Therapy for people with schizophrenia or related disorders. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2020, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD011898. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011898.pub2.
  • Dellazizzo L, Potvin S, Phraxayavong K, Dumais A. (2020) Exploring the Benefits of Virtual Reality-Assisted Therapy Following Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Auditory Hallucinations in Patients with Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia: A Proof of Concept. J Clin Med. 2020 Sep 30;9(10):3169. doi: 10.3390/jcm9103169. [PMID:33007909]


  • Beaudoin M, Potvin S, Machalani A, Dellazizzo L, Bourguignon L, Phraxayavong K, Dumais A. (2021) The therapeutic processes of Avatar Therapy: A content analysis of the dialogue between treatment resistant patients with schizophrenia and their avatar. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2021 Jan 22. doi: 10.1002/cpp.2556. [PMID:33484042]
  • Dellazizzo L, Potvin S, Phraxayavong K, Dumais A. (2021) One-year randomized trial comparing virtual reality-assisted therapy to cognitive-behavioral therapy for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. NPJ Schizophr. 2021 Feb 12;7(1):9. doi: 10.1038/s41537-021-00139-2. [PMID:33580033]